RAMSES

RAMSES (Egyptian Rʿ-ms-sw; "Re is he that has borne him"; name of several Egyptian rulers of the 19th and the 20th dynasties. Connected with the sun god of Heliopolis, the name is significant for the orientation toward Lower Egypt that accompanied the attempt to regain power over Asia, which had been lost in the Amarna period. Ramses I (c. 1306–1305 B.C.E.) rose to become founder of the 19th dynasty from a non-royal position as vizier. It was left to his grandson Ramses II (c. 1290–1223 B.C.E.) to restore Egypt to her former greatness. His long reign, splendid building activities (additions to the Karnak and Luxor temples, the Ramesseum, the monumental rock-cut temple at Abu Simbel), and numerous offspring (over 100 children) made him a legendary figure for later times. The enlargement of his residence at Tanis, renamed Per-Ramses in his honor, agrees with the biblical record (Ex. 1:11) of the building of ramses and pithom (Tell el-Maskhouta in the eastern Delta) by the Israelites, and makes him the probable pharaoh of the Exodus. A battle with the Hittites at Kadesh in his fifth year ended in a stalemate. Campaigns in Palestine, southern Phoenicia, and Edom are attested for the following years. In year 21 of his reign a treaty with Hatti was drawn up in the face of the new common menace embodied in the advancing Sea Peoples. The full impact of these peoples fell on Ramses III (c. 1188–1157 B.C.E.), the son of the founder of the 20th dynasty. He warded off their attack in his eighth year, after they had overrun the Hittites. He also managed to check the Libyans and maintained authority over Palestine. However, after his death by a harem intrigue, Palestine, now settled by Philistines and the Israelites, was forever lost to Egypt. A list of his temple donations shows that increasing wealth accumulated in the hands of the priests of Amun at Thebes. Under his successors (Ramses IV–XI, c. 1157–1085 B.C.E.), political influence was also taken over by the priests, while the might of the rulers steadily declined in a country lacking foreign influence and troubled by poverty and inflation. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: M.B. Rowton, in: Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 34 (1948), 57–74; J.A. Wilson, The Burden of Egypt (1951), 239ff.; P. Montet, Géographie de l'Egypte ancienne, 1 (1957), 214; O. Eissfeldt, in: CAH2, vol. 2, ch. 26, 17–19; R.O. Faulkner, ibid., ch. 23. (Irene Grumach)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Ramsès 2 — Ramsès II Articles de la série Pharaon Classements alphabétique chronologique Dynasties 0  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ramses IX — Ramsès IX Articles de la série Pharaon Classements alphabétique chronologique Dynasties 0  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ramsés IX — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Estela de Ramsés IX. Metropolitan Museum. Neferkara Setepenra Ramsés, o Ramsés IX fue el octavo faraón de la dinastía XX de Egipto, gobernando de c. 1126 a 1108 a. C …   Wikipedia Español

  • Ramses VI — Ramsès VI Articles de la série Pharaon Classements alphabétique chronologique Dynasties 0  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ramsés — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Ramsés es la forma helenizada del antiguo nombre egipcio Ra mss (engendrado por Ra) que reciben varios faraones: Pertenecientes a la dinastía XIX de Egipto: Ramsés I, Menpehtyra Ramsés, el faraón fundador de la… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Ramses — ist der Eigenname folgender Pharaonen: Ramses I. Men pehti Re Ramses II. User maat Re setep en Re (Ramses der Große) Ramses III. User maat Re meri Amun Ramses IV. Heqa maat Re setep en Amun Ramses V. Se cheper en Re Ramses VI. Neb maat Re meri… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ramses — Ramsès Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Articles de la série Pharaon Classements alphabétique …   Wikipédia en Français

  • RAMSÈS II — Il est impossible de parler de Ramsès II sans évoquer l’histoire de toute la XIXe dynastie manéthonienne. Le règne de Ramsès II n’est que le prolongement de l’œuvre accomplie par les deux premiers pharaons ramessides. La postérité a souvent… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Ramses IV — Ramsès IV Articles de la série Pharaon Classements alphabétique chronologique Dynasties 0  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ramsés VI — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Ramsés VI, Museo del Louvre …   Wikipedia Español

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